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Scientific challenge: Beat the simplest results of my Controlled Natural Language reasoner

Download this challenge document (updated: June 11, 2017):
Scientific challenge - Beat my Controlled Natural Language reasoner.pdf

Problem description

Autonomous reasoning requires both natural intelligence and natural language. Without knowing, scientists have applied natural intelligence to natural language at least 200 years ago, by describing reasoning constructions through Predicate Logic (algebra). Later, these reasoning constructions were implemented in Controlled Natural Language (CNL) reasoners. CNL reasoners are able to derive new knowledge from previously unknown knowledge, both expressed in readable sentences with limited grammar.

For example:

> Given: “John is a father.
> Given: “Every father is a man.

• Logical conclusion:
< “John is a man.

However, the same conclusion – but in the past tense form – is not described in any scientific paper, because scientists "forgot" to define predicate logic (algebra) for past tense:

> Given: “James was a father.
> Given: “Every father is a man.

• Logical conclusion:
< “James was a man.

Apparently, predicate logic (algebra) is limited to support autonomous reasoning using present tense verb “is/are”. Algebra doesn't support possessive reasoning – reasoning using possessive verb “has/have” – either, like:

> Given: “Paul is a son of John.

• Logical conclusion:
< “John has a son, called Paul.

So, why doesn't predicate logic (algebra) support past tense reasoning – nor possessive reasoning – in a natural way? Why should any predicate beyond present tense verb “is/are” be described in an artificial way, like has_son(john,paul)? Why is algebra still not equipped for natural language, after those centuries of scientific research?

And even though algebra describes the Exclusive OR (XOR) function in a natural way, CNL reasoners still don't implement its linguistic equivalent: conjunction “or”. CNL reasoners are therefore unable to generate the following question:

> Given: “Every person is a man or a woman.
> Given: “Addison is a person.

• Logical question:
< “Is Addison a man or a woman?

So, even 60 years after its start, this field still has a fundamental problem:

Words like definite article “the” (see Block 6), conjunction “or” (see Block 5), possessive verb “has/have” (see Block 1, Block 2 and Block 3) and past tense verbs “was/were” and “had” (see Block 4) have a naturally intelligent function in language. However, their naturally intelligent function is not described in any scientific paper. Apparently, scientists don't understand their naturally intelligent function in language.