1.1. Fiction, science and engineering
The field of AI and knowledge technology is partly fiction: The belief that intelligence and meaning will emerge and evolve “by itself”, as if there is magic – or a supernatural power – involved. As long as it can't be explained in detail, it isn't scientific.
Only a small part of this field is generic, and therefore scientific: Predicate Logic describes the function of verb “is/are” in a generic way, the way nature works. Proof: A science integrates its involved disciplines. And Controlled Natural Language reasoners integrate reasoning and natural language in regard to verb “is/are”. However, Predicate Logic doesn't include for example the natural function of verb “has/have”.
The remaining part of this field is engineering:
In most industries, quality standards are defined and implemented, to preserve and guarantee the quality of products. However, in the field of AI and knowledge technology, there is no foundation defined that guarantees to implement natural intelligence in artificial systems. Let alone, a quality standard to guarantee that the natural meaning (natural structure of knowledge) is preserved during each step of knowledge processing.
Unable to define the natural function in language of for example verb “has/have”, scientists teach us that knowledge containing this verb needs to be programmed directly into a reasoner, like: has_son(john,paul). This is engineering (specific solutions to specific problems) instead of science (generic solutions).