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The Logic of Language

Reverse-engineering the language center of our brain – by the discovery of natural laws of intelligence that are embedded in grammar – which invalidates the theory of evolution as the explanation for the origin of intelligence, language and laws of nature

Download the fundamental document (updated: September 11, 2018):
The Logic of Language - Reverse-engineering the language center of our brain.pdf


Introduction

The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and knowledge technology (NLP) started around the year 1956. However, there are four reasons to believe that the current approach to AI and NLP has fundamental problems:

1. Intelligence and language are natural phenomena. Natural phenomena obey laws of nature. And laws of nature are investigated using fundamental science / basic research. However, the field AI and NLP is researched using behavioral / cognitive science. A cognitive approach delivers a simulation of behavior. For example, a flight simulator. While a fundamental approach delivers an artificial implementation that obeys the involved natural laws. For example, an airplane;
Fundamental science versus cognitive science
2. A fundamental science has a foundation in nature, which leads to generic solutions. But due to its cognitive approach, the field of AI and NLP has no foundation in nature – nor a definition based on nature – 60 years after its start. Without foundation, this field is baseless. And being baseless, this field is limited to the engineering of specific solutions to specific problems, while a fundamental science delivers generic solutions;

3. As a consequence, in knowledge technology, artificial structures are applied to keywords, while the natural structure of sentences is ignored. By ignoring the structure that is provided by nature, the field of NLP got stuck in the processing of “bags of keywords”, while scientists are unable – or unwilling – to define the logical functions of even the most basic word types;

4. Moreover, a science integrates its disciplines, while in the field of AI and NLP, scientists are unable – or unwilling – to integrate (automated) reasoning and natural language. In other words, this field has a blind spot:
Chatbots, Virtual Assistants and Natural Language Generation (NLG) techniques are unable to reason logically. They are only able to select human-written sentences, in which they may fill-in keywords on the blanks;
• Reasoners like Prolog are able to reason logically. But they only have keywords as output. So, their results can't be expressed in automatically constructed sentences. As a consequence, laymen are unable to use this kind of reasoner;
Controlled Natural Language (CNL) reasoners are able to reason logically. And they are able to write their results as readable sentences, by which laymen are able to use this kind of reasoner. However, CNL reasoners – other than mine – are limited to sentences with verb “is/are” in the present tense.