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2.4.1. Predicate Logic

Algebra / Predicate Logic is not equipped to process linguistics. It describes logic expressed by present tense verb “is/are” in a natural way. But it doesn’t describe the logic of the complimentary function of verb “is/are”, namely verb “has/have”. Neither does it describe the logic of their past tense functions, namely verb “was/were” and verb “had”. As a consequence, automated reasoners are unable to read and write sentences with possessive verb “has/have” and with past tense verbs “was/were” and “had”.

A lot of structure words (non-keywords) have a naturally intelligent function in language. However, their naturally intelligent function is not described in any scientific paper. Apparently, scientists don't understand their naturally intelligent function in language.

Being unable to describe possessive logic in a natural way, another workaround is created, by adding possessive logic in an artificial way:

• Possessive logic must be programmed directly into the reasoner, like “has_son(john,paul)”;
• Besides that, lacking a generic solution, the same logic needs to be programmed for each and every new noun. So, separate functions must be programmed for “has_daughter”, “has_father”, “has_mother”, “has_teacher”, “has_student”, and so on;
• Moreover, in order to enable multilingual reasoning, all existing functions in one language, need to be translated for each and every new language.

This is engineering (specific solutions to specific problems) instead of science (a generic solution). Actually, it is a bad example of engineering. This is madness. We need to uplift the field of AI and NLP from engineering to a science.

Thinknowlogy 2018r1

will be published in May 2018, which will add the Chinese language. See my planning for the other planned publications. Follow this project on Twitter, subscribe to project updates on SourceForge, subscribe to project updates on GitHub or receive an email when a new version is available.


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God has created laws of nature to make his creation run like clockwork. It includes: laws of intelligence embedded in grammar. Thinknowlogy implements these natural laws of intelligence in software.