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3.3 Semantics

Semantics is the process of autonomously putting words (and word combinations) in the corresponding context. And a context is the distinction between ambiguous objects:
• The more specific and the more consistent the distinction of a word in a certain context, the clearer the meaning of that word in that context;
• The more fundamental the contexts of a given word, the deeper meaning of that word.

Semantics can be generated automatically by associating and discriminating knowledge, the first two capabilities from the definition of intelligence:

Associating or combining of knowledge
Knowledge can be associated or combined by implementing rules like:
• Classes can only be combined with related classes, which are classes of the same word type having the same subclasses1 and/or the same relations2;
• Subclasses can only be combined with related subclasses, which are subclasses of the same word type having the same classes and, if present, also the same relations;
• Relations can only be combined by related relations, which are relations of the same word type having the same classes and subclasses.

Discriminating or differentiating of knowledge
Knowledge can be discriminated or differentiated by implementing rules like:
• Subclasses will be differentiated when conjunction “or” is used to exclude them, like in definition sentence: “A parent is a father or mother.”. So, when a particular father is named, this definition sentence excludes the possibility of that father being a mother as well;
• When the sentence is given: “Boston is a city in the USA as well as a city in the UK.”, the knowledge will be able to differentiate both occurrences of Boston;
• By keeping track of changes, the system will be able to differentiate past tense from present tense.


1 classes and subclasses according the definitions of ontology
2 Relations are words in a sentence preceded by a preposition, like in sentence: “John is the father of Paul.”. In this case, “Paul” is the relation word, because Paul has a (child) relation with “John”.

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All systems are designed: All artificial systems are designed by humans • All natural systems are designed by God.


God has designed laws of nature to make his creation run like clockwork. Also natural language is subject to laws of nature: natural laws of intelligence. Thinknowlogy implements these natural laws of intelligence in software.