4.7. Super-intelligence (machines surpassing human intelligence)
Humans are able to play chess, to play the game Go, to move an amount of sand, to contribute to business meetings, to cook diner, to clean the house, to babysit, and to tell bedtime stories. So, we – humans – are generally intelligent.
According to the theory of evolution, evolution leads to increasing intelligence. Even though all machines are designed, and even though scientists fail to define natural intelligence in a natural way, some evolutionists hope or fear that (macro)evolution will emerge in artificial systems: super-intelligence, machines surpassing human intelligence.
But we really need to distinguish “machines surpassing human capabilities in a limited domain” from “machines surpassing human intelligence”.
First, let's consider a few systems that surpass human capabilities in a limited domain:
• Deep Blue was able to beat humans in playing chess, but not in playing the game Go;
• AlphaGo is able to beat humans in playing the game Go, but not in playing chess;
• Bulldozers are able to beat humans in moving an amount of sand. But they are unable to play chess, unable to play Go, unable to cook diner, unable to babysit, and so on.