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2.3.1 Specification Substitution Conclusions

Consider the following sentences:
• “John is a father.
• “A father is a man.

First, a comment: the last sentence we call a definition sentence because the generalization is formed through a indefinite article and a noun. In addition the specification is formed by one or more indefinite articles and nouns.

From these sentences we can conclude that: “John is a man.”.

This conclusion can be automated by applying the following rules:

1. Take the sentence in which the singular specification is formed by way of a indefinite article and a noun;
2. With that specification, search the definition sentences in which the specifications (identified above) are the same as the generalization of the definition sentence;
3. In the case of the first sentence, the specification is applicable to every associated definition.

So, in the case of the above mentioned sentence:

1. Take the sentence about “John”. The (singular) specification of that sentence is: “a father”;
2. For that specification the applicable definition is: “A father is a man.”;
3. The software can now independently draw the conclusion that: “John is a man.”, by replacing the specification of the sentence about “John” with the specification of the definition sentence.

We call this a specification substitution conclusion because the specification of a proper noun sentence can be replaced by the specification of a definition sentence.