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2.3.1.1 Compound specification substitution conclusions

Take the sentences:
• “A parent is a father or (a) mother.
• “A father is a man.
• “A mother is a woman.

According to the (singular) specification substitution conclusion the singular specification of a sentence may be replaced with the specification of a definition sentence. Also in the case of a sentence with a compound specification such as “A parent is a father or (a) mother.”, the specifications may be replaced as long as there is a definition for both.

By replacing both the specifications “father” as well as “mother” by using the terms “man” and “woman”, it could be concluded (from that specific sentence) that “A parent is a man or (a) woman.”.

Such a conclusion we call a compound specification substitution conclusion because the compound specification is replaced by another definition.

Another form of a compound specification-substitution conclusion is formed when a singular specification is replaced by a compound specification of a definition sentence, such as in these sentences:

• “Pete is a child (of John).
• “A child is a son or (a) daughter.

Here the conclusion is: “Pete is a son or (a) daughter (of John).”.