Follow project on Twitter
NederlandsEnglish

2.4.3. The function of word types in reasoning

There is another fundamental problem when Predicate Logic is applied to linguistics: It doesn't specify word types.

For example, instead of “All humans are mortal”, it is perfectly fine in Predicate Logic to write “All blue are mortal”. But this sentence construction is grammatically invalid for any adjective. It is only valid for plural nouns.

In order to be applicable to natural language, Predicate Logic should describe the word type of each variable. In this case, it should define that the first variable (second word) should be a plural noun, and that the second variable (last word) should be an adjective.

Let's consider the following equation: “Every car has an engine” equals to “An engine is part of every car”. I state that this equation is true for any singular noun. However, unaware of the function of word types in language, scientists try to prove my fundamental approach wrong by using a proper noun, like: “John has a son” equals to “A son is part of every John”, which is nonsense of course.

So, despite of using different types in common programming languages – such as booleans, integers and strings – scientists are ignorant of the function of the different word types when it comes to reasoning in natural language.

The algebra of language that I used in the challenge to beat my Controlled Natural Language reasoner repairs both problems: Preserving word type information, as well as reasoning beyond the present tense of basic verb “is/are” (see Predicate Logic). Abbreviations can be used later, in order to make the notation compact.

Thinknowlogy 2018r1

will be published in May 2018, which will add the Chinese language. See my planning for the other planned publications. Follow this project on Twitter, subscribe to project updates on SourceForge, subscribe to project updates on GitHub or receive an email when a new version is available.


Join my Fair Science Supporters group on LinkedIn to support a fair practice of science, and/or my Fair Science • Artificial Intelligence (AI) and knowledge technology (NLP) group, which is dedicated to a fair practice of Artificial Intelligence and knowledge technology. Or send me a LinkedIn invitation.


God has created laws of nature to make his creation run like clockwork. It includes: laws of intelligence embedded in grammar. Thinknowlogy implements these natural laws of intelligence in software.