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1.1. Fiction, engineering and science

Fact-checking is extremely rare in the field of AI and NLP.

Fact: Scientists are unable – or unwilling – to define intelligence as a set of natural laws.

Being unable – or unwilling – to define intelligence, AI is not an artificial implementation of natural intelligence. As a consequence, AI is not scientific. Instead, AI is just clever engineering. Therefore, this field is limited to deliver specific solutions to specific problems.

Being unable to define intelligence, a lot of Science Fiction stories are told on AI. This video on YouTube separates engineering from the Science Fiction stories told on AI: “How Intelligent is Artificial Intelligence? - Computerphile”.

Also the field of NLP is not scientific. Because scientists are unable – or unwilling – to derive new knowledge from sentences in natural language and to write the derived knowledge back to readable sentences in natural language. It proves that scientists don’t understand what natural language is 1.

Only Controlled Natural Language reasoners are able to close the loop: natural languagelogicnatural language. Because only CNL reasoners are able to read sentences (with an extremely limited grammar), to derive new knowledge, and to write the derived knowledge in self-constructed sentences (with an extremely limited grammar).

CNL reasoners are based on Predicate Logic, which describes the intelligent function of basic verb “is/are” in a generic way, in the way nature works. So, CNL reasoners work in the way nature works regard to verb “is/are”. Therefore, they deliver a generic solution. And therefore, they are scientific.

However, Predicate Logic – and thus CNL reasoners – is limited to logic expressed with basic verb “is/are”. Scientists are for example ignorant of the intelligent function in language of possessive verb “has/have”. Instead of implementing this intelligent function in artificial systems – which would deliver a generic solution – scientists teach us to hard-code knowledge containing this verb directly into a reasoner or a knowledge base, like: has_son(john,paul). This is again engineering – a specific solution to a specific problem – instead of science.

1 The field of electromagnetism is scientific – understood – because scientists are able to close the loop for electricity, magnetism, movement and light. Scientists are able:
• to convert electricity to light, and to convert light back to electricity;
• to convert electricity to magnetism, and magnetism back to electricity;
• to convert magnetism to movement, and movement back to magnetism.

However, scientists are unable – or unwilling – to close the loop for natural language and logic, because they are ignorant of the logical structures of natural language.