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The Logic of Language

Reverse-engineering the language center of our brain – by the discovery of natural laws of intelligence that are embedded in grammar – which invalidates the theory of evolution as the explanation for the origin of intelligence, language and laws of nature

Download het fundamentele document (bijgewerkt op: 16 november 2017):
The Logic of Language - Reverse-engineering the language center of our brain.pdf


Introduction

The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and knowledge technology (NLP) started around the year 1956. However, there are four reasons to believe that the current approach to AI and NLP has a fundamental problem:

1. Intelligence and language are natural phenomena. Natural phenomena obey laws of nature. And laws of nature are investigated using (basic or) fundamental science. However, the field AI and NLP is researched using (behavioral or) cognitive science. This cognitive approach delivers a simulation of behavior (similar to a flight simulator), while a fundamental approach would deliver an artificial implementation of natural intelligence (similar to an airplane);
Fundamental science versus cognitive science
2. A science has a foundation in nature, which leads to generic solutions. But due to its cognitive approach, the field of AI and NLP has no foundation in nature – nor a definition based on nature – 60 years after its start. Without foundation, this field is baseless. And being baseless, this field is limited to engineer specific solutions to specific problems, while a science delivers generic solutions;

3. As a consequence, in knowledge technology, artificial structures are applied to keywords, while the natural structure of sentences is ignored. By ignoring this structure provided by nature, the field of NLP got stuck in processing of “bags of keywords” and unstructured texts, while scientists are unable – or unwilling – to define the logical function of even the most basic word types;

4. Moreover, a science integrates its disciplines. However, in the field of AI and NLP, scientists are unable – or unwilling – to integrate (automated) reasoning and natural language. In other words, this field has a blind spot:
• Reasoners (like Prolog) are able to reason, but their results – derived knowledge – can't be expressed in readable and automatically constructed sentences;
Chatbots, Virtual (Personal) Assistants and Natural Language Generation (NLG) techniques are unable to reason logically. They are only able to select human-written sentences, in which they may fill-in user-written keywords;
Controlled Natural Language (CNL) reasoners are very limited in integrating both disciplines. They are limited to sentences with present tense verb “is/are”, and don't accept words like definite article “the”, conjunction “or”, possessive verb “has/have” and past tense verbs “was/were” and “had”.